Norman Osborn is a fictional supervillain that appears in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was created by writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko, and first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #14 (July 1964) as the original and most well-known incarnation of Green Goblin. An amoral industrialist head of Oscorp, he took a formula which enhanced his physical abilities and intellect but also drove him to insanity. He adopted a Halloween-themed appearance, dressing in a goblin costume, riding on a bat-shaped "Goblin Glider", and using an arsenal of high-tech weapons, notably grenade-like "Pumpkin Bombs", to terrorize New York City. He is one of Spider-Man's most persistent archenemies that is responsible for numerous tragedies (such as Gwen Stacy's death and the Clone Saga), and is Harry Osborn's father. However, he has also come into conflict with other superheroes in the Marvel Universe, and was the focus of the company-wide Dark Reign storyline as the original iteration of Iron Patriot.
The character was played by Willem Dafoe in the 2002 film Spider-Man, and by Chris Cooper in the 2014 film The Amazing Spider-Man 2. In 2009, Norman Osborn was also ranked as IGN's 13th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time.