Synecdoche, New York is a 2008 American postmodern[3] drama film written and directed by Charlie Kaufman, and starring Philip Seymour Hoffman. It was Kaufman's directorial debut.

The plot follows an ailing theater director (Hoffman) as he works on an increasingly elaborate stage production whose extreme commitment to realism begins to blur the boundaries between fiction and reality.

The film premiered in competition at the 61st Annual Cannes Film Festival on May 23, 2008. Sony Pictures Classics acquired the United States distribution rights, paying no money but agreeing to give the film's backers a portion of the revenues.[4][5] It had a limited theatrical release in the U.S. on October 24, 2008. Despite many favorable reviews by critics, the film generated much less revenue than it cost.[2] The film's title is a play on Schenectady, New York, where much of the film is set, and the concept of synecdoche, wherein a part of something represents the whole, or vice versa.

Contents[edit | edit source]

 [hide*1 Plot

Plot[edit][edit | edit source]

Theater director Caden Cotard finds his life unraveling.[6] Suffering from numerous physical ailments and growing increasingly alienated from his wife, Adele, he hits bottom when Adele leaves him for a new life in Berlin, taking their daughter, Olive, with her.

Shortly afterward, Caden unexpectedly receives a MacArthur Fellowship, giving him the financial means to pursue his artistic interests. He is determined to use it to create an artistic piece of brutal realism and honesty, something into which he can pour his whole self. Gathering an ensemble cast into an enormous warehouse in Manhattan's Theater District, he directs them in a celebration of the mundane, instructing each to live out their constructed lives. As the mockup inside the warehouse grows increasingly mimetic of the city outside, Caden continues to look for solutions to his personal crises. He is traumatized as he discovers Adele has become a celebrated painter in Berlin and Olive is growing up under the questionable guidance of Adele's friend, Maria. After a disastrous fling with the woman who mans the box office, Hazel, he marries Claire, an actress in his cast. Their relationship ultimately fails, however, and he continues his awkward relationship with Hazel, who is by now married with children. Meanwhile, an unknown condition is systematically shutting down his autonomic functions one by one.

As the years rapidly pass, the continually expanding warehouse is isolated from the deterioration of the city outside. Caden buries himself ever deeper into his magnum opus, blurring the line between the world of the play and that of reality by populating the cast and crew with doppelgängers. For instance, Sammy Barnathan is cast in the role of Caden in the play after Sammy reveals that he has been obsessively following Caden for 20 years, while Sammy's lookalike is cast as Sammy. Sammy's own interest in Hazel sparks a revival of Caden's relationship with her.

As he pushes the limits of his relationships personally and professionally, Caden lets an actress take over his role as director and takes on her previous role as Ellen, Adele's cleaning lady. He lives out his days in the model of Adele's apartment under the replacement director's instruction during which some unexplained (and likely in-universe) calamity occurs in the warehouse leaving ruins and bodies in its wake. Finally he prepares for death as he rests his head on the shoulder of an actress who had previously played Ellen's mother, seemingly the only person left alive in the warehouse. As the scene fades to gray, Caden says that now he has an idea for how to do the play, when the director's voice in his ear gives him his final cue: "Die."

Cast[edit][edit | edit source]

Motifs[edit][edit | edit source]

The burning house
Early in the film, Hazel purchases a house that is eternally on fire. At first showing reluctance to buy it, Hazel remarks to the real estate agent, "I like it, I do. But I'm really concerned about dying in the fire," which prompts the response "It's a big decision, how one prefers to die." In an interview with Michael Guillén, Kaufman stated, "Well, she made the choice to live there. In fact, she says in the scene just before she dies that the end is built into the beginning. That's exactly what happens there. She chooses to live in this house. She's afraid it's going to kill her but she stays there and it does. That is the truth about any choice that we make. We make choices that resonate throughout our lives."[7] The burning house has been compared to the Tennessee Williams quote: "We all live in a house on fire, no fire department to call; no way out, just the upstairs window to look out of while the fire burns the house down with us trapped, locked in it."[8]
Miniature paintings and the impossible warehouses
Both Caden and Adele are artists, and the scale on which both of them work becomes increasingly relevant to the story as the film progresses. Adele works on an extremely small scale, while Caden works on an impossibly large scale, constructing a full-size replica of New York City in a warehouse, and eventually a warehouse within that warehouse, and so on, continuing in this impossible cycle. Adele's name is almost a mondegreen for "a delicate art" (Adele Lack Cotard).[original research?] Commenting on the scale of the paintings (actually the miniaturized paintings of artist Alex Kanevsky),[9] Kaufman said, "In [Adele's] studio at the beginning of the movie you can see some small but regular-sized paintings that you could see without a magnifying glass ... By the time [Caden] goes to the gallery to look at her work, which is many years later, you can't see them at all." He continued, "As a dream image it appeals to me. Her work is in a way much more effective than Caden's work. Caden's goal in his attempt to do his sprawling theater piece is to impress Adele because he feels so lacking next to her in terms of his work," and added, "Caden's work is so literal. The only way he can reflect reality in his mind is by imitating it full-size .... It's a dream image but he's not interacting with it successfully."[7]
Jungian psychology
Many reviewers have compared the plot to Jungian psychology.[7][10][11][12] Carl Jung wrote that the waking and dream states are both necessary in the quest for meaning, and Caden seems to exist in a blend of the two. Kaufman has said, "I think the difference is that a movie that tries to be a dream has a punchline and the punchline is: it was a dream."[7] Another concept in Jungian psychology is the four steps to self-realization: becoming conscious of theshadow (recognizing the constructive and destructive sides), becoming conscious of the anima and animus (where a man becomes conscious of his female component and a woman becomes conscious of her male component), becoming conscious of the archetypal spirit (where humans take on their mana personalities), and finally self-realization, where a person is fully aware of the ego and the self. Caden seems to go through all four of these stages. When he hires Sammy, he learns of his true personality and becomes more aware of himself. He becomes aware of his anima when he replaces himself with Ellen. In taking on the role of Ellen, he becomes conscious of the archetypal spirit and finally realizes truths about his life and about love.
References to delusion
In the Cotard delusion, one believes oneself to be dead or that one's organs are missing or decaying.[13] Caden’s preoccupation with illness and dying seems related.
When Caden enters Adele’s flat, the buzzer pressed (31Y) bears the name Capgras. Capgras delusion is a psychiatric disorder in which sufferers perceive familiar people (spouses, siblings, friends) to have been replaced by identical imposters. This theme is echoed throughout the film as individuals are replaced by actors in Caden’s ever-expanding play.
In the closing scenes of the film Caden hears instructions by earpiece. This is similar to the auditory third-person hallucination described by Kurt Schneider as a first-rank symptom of schizophrenia.[14]
Play within a play
The film is meta-referential in that it portrays a play within a play, sometimes also referred to as mise en abyme.
This theme has been compared to the William Shakespeare line "All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players."[15][16]
It has also been compared to the music video for Icelandic singer Björk's song "Bachelorette".[16][17] The video portrays a woman who finds an autobiographical book about her that writes itself. The book is then adapted into a play, which features a play within itself. The video was directed by Michel Gondry, who also directed Kaufman's films Human Nature and Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. In an interview, Kaufman responded to the comparison, saying "Yeah, I heard that comparison before. The reason Michel and I found each other is because we have similar sort of ideas."[18]
Death and decay
Throughout the film Caden refers to the inevitability of death and the idea that everyone is already dead. "Practically everything in Caden's grotesque existence betokens mortality and decay," writes Jonathan Romney of The Independent, "whether it be skin lesions, garbled fax messages or the contents of people's toilet bowls. "[19]
The ultimate irony of the film is that while Caden believes he is dying throughout the film, he is in fact the last of the people he cares about to die.
Some reviewers have noted that the film seems inspired by postmodernist philosopher Jean Baudrillard's concept of Simulacra and Simulation.[20][21][22] An article in The Guardian suggests that the film is the "ultimate postmodern novel."[3]
Hazel's books
Hazel's books also have significance in the film. She has Swann's Way (the first volume of In Search of Lost Time) by Marcel Proust and The Trial by Franz Kafka; both are related to the film's overall motifs.[8]

Production[edit][edit | edit source]

The film began when Sony Pictures Classics approached Kaufman and Spike Jonze about making a horror film. The two began working on a film dealing with things they found frightening in real life, rather than typical horror-film tropes.[23] This project eventually evolved into Synecdoche. Jonze was originally slated to direct, but chose to direct Where the Wild Things Are instead.[24]

The film was shot on location in New York CityYonkers, and Schenectady, New York.

The score was composed by Jon Brion with all lyrics by Kaufman.

Following its premiere at Cannes, the film was shown at the Sarajevo Film Festival, the Toronto International Film Festival, the Athens Film Festival, the Rio de Janeiro International Film Festival, the Ghent International Film Festival, and the Zagreb Film Festival before its limited theatrical release in the US.

A play version of the film was subsequently published in 2009 by Nick Hern Books.

Critical reception[edit][edit | edit source]

Synecdoche, New York received sharply polarized but generally favorable reviews, maintaining a 67/100 score at Metacritic[25] and a 69% fresh score on Rotten Tomatoes.[26] A number of critics have compared it to Federico Fellini's 1963 film .[11][27][28] The Moving Arts Film Journal ranked the film at #80 on its list of "The 100 Greatest Movies of All Time".[29]

In his review in the Chicago Sun-TimesRoger Ebert said, "I watched it the first time and knew it was a great film."[30] In 2009 Ebert wrote that the movie was the best of the decade.[31] Manohla Dargis of the New York Times said, "To say that [it] is one of the best films of the year or even one closest to my heart is such a pathetic response to its soaring ambition that I might as well pack it in right now ... Despite its slippery way with time and space and narrative and Mr. Kaufman’s controlled grasp of the medium, Synecdoche, New York is as much a cry from the heart as it is an assertion of creative consciousness. It’s extravagantly conceptual but also tethered to the here and now."[32] In the Los Angeles Times, Corina Chocano called the film "wildly ambitious ... sprawling, awe-inspiring, heartbreaking, frustrating, hard-to-follow and achingly, achingly sad."[33]

Negative reviews mostly criticized the film for being incomprehensible, pretentious, depressing, or self-indulgent. Rex Reed, Richard Brody, Roger Friedman, and Chris Carpenter of the Orange County and Long Beach Blade, all labeled it one of the worst films of the year.[citation needed] Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a D+, writing "I gave up making heads or tails of Synecdoche, New York, but I did get one message: The compulsion to stand outside of one's life and observe it to this degree isn't the mechanism of art — it's the structure of psychosis."[34] American film critic Jonathan Rosenbaum wrote, " seems more like an illustration of his script than a full-fledged movie, proving how much he needs a Spike Jonze or a Michel Gondry to realize his surrealistic conceits."[35]

Top ten lists[edit][edit | edit source]

The film appeared on many critics' top-ten lists of the best films of 2008.[36] Both Kimberly Jones and Marjorie Baumgarten of the Austin Chronicle named it the best film of the year, as did Ray Bennett of The Hollywood Reporter.

It appeared on 101 "Best of 2008" lists with 20 of them giving it the number one spot.[37] Some of those who placed it in their top ten included Manohla Dargis of the New York TimesRichard Corliss of TimeShawn Anthony Levy of The Oregonian, Josh Rosenblatt of the Austin Chronicle, Joe Neumaier of the New York Daily NewsTy Burr and Wesley Morris of the Boston GlobeLou Lumenick of the New York Post, Philip Martin of the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, Scott Foundas of LA Weekly, Walter Chaw, Bill Chambers and Ian Pugh of Film Freak Central (all three of whom placed it at number one), and Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times, who also named it the best film of the decade in 2009.[31] While casting his votes for the 2012 Sight & Sound poll, Ebert considered the film a strong contender for his list of the greatest films of all time.[38]

Awards and nominations[edit][edit | edit source]

Charlie Kaufman was nominated for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival and the 2008 Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Original Screenplay.

Kaufman was awarded Best Original Screenplay by the Austin Film Critics Association and the film was placed on their Top 10 Films of the Year list.

The film won the Independent Spirit Award for Best First Feature and the Robert Altman Award at the 2008 Independent Spirit Awards ceremony; it also was nominated for the Independent Spirit Award for Best Screenplay.

At the 2008 Gotham Independent Film Awards, the film tied with Vicky Cristina Barcelona for Best Ensemble Cast.

Mark Friedberg won the 2008 Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Production Design.

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